In the English section of this website, the 7 basic notes of the octave are represented as S R G m P D N. In addition to these 7 basic notes, there are few flat or komal notes (Re, Ga, Dha and Ni) and a sharp or teevra note (Ma or Madhyam). The combination of all these notes makes 12 swaras in an octave. The following table illustrates the notation of all the 12 notes of the Octave:
Sr. No. Note Notation 1 Shadja (Sa) S 2 Komal Rishabh (Re) r 3 Shuddha Rishabh (Re) R 4 Komal Gandhar (Ga) g 5 Shuddha Gandhar (Ga) G 6 Shuddha Madhyam (Ma) m 7 Teevra Madhyam (Ma) M 8 Pancham (Pa) P 9 Komal Dhaivat (Dha) d 10 Shuddha Dhaivat (Dha) D 11 Komal Nishad (Ni) n 12 Shuddha Nishad (Ni) N
Upper octave notes or Tar-Saptak Swaras are shown as the note with a single quote like S' for Tar Shadaj or Sa.
Lower octave notes or Mandra-Saptak Swaras are shown as the note with a comma like ,N for Mandra-Saptak Nishad or Ni.
s is used to denote a prolonged note or Avagraha while rendering for example: S s G s s M R S
If more than one note is taken in a beat, it will be written as continuous notes like PMGM - PM where in PMGM, 4 notes have been rendered in a single beat where as in PM only 2 notes have been rendered in a single beat.